Written by webtechs

Cooling Tower Problems Solved

If you’re having cooling tower problems, we have the solutions. This guide lists common problems and solutions for things that cause cooling towers to use more electricity and eventually need repair.

If your cooling tower is giving you trouble and you’re not quite sure what is causing the issue or how to resolve it, you’ve come across the right article. In this article, we aim to help you understand what’s going on, and outline how companies specializing in cooling tower maintenance can resolve the issues and get you going.The quality of your cooling system will depend greatly on the kind of water treatment program you have set up, the better the water treatment program, the more effectively the cooling system will perform. The water treatment program and the quality of water will directly impact the operating costs, reliability, and efficiency of any institutional or industrial cooling system.

Cooling Tower Problems Solved

Four major issues, namely microbiological and bacterial contamination, corrosion, scaling and fouling, plague any cooling system, and these must be monitored and controlled by the facility to ensure the system keeps operating efficiently and reliably. Proper management of these issues will limit the cooling system equipment and operating costs and also ensure that the system does not face downtime due to water related troubles.

Cooling Tower Problems

The treatment for maintaining a reliable cooling system may vary from case to case, but the path remains the same: ensuring that treatment is effective in managing the water related issues. Ensuring that the treatment program chosen is effective enables facilities avoid high operating costs and unexpected repair expenses.


A closed loop system constantly exposed to water is under constant danger of being corroded, and this issue could become unmanageable if it is often ignored during the maintenance process. Neglecting it proper maintenance will lead to leaks that can be costly to repair and the damage can also spread to other systems. Corrosion protective cooling tower contractors can help you get the services you need.


The heat exchange surface enables the cooling system to effectively perform its primary function but can also encourage scale production. The high temperature involved in the process reduces solubility of several elements, like calcium, in the water that can deposit on the heat exchange surface and cause scaling. This layer of scale has insulating tendencies and will hinder effective heat dispersal consequently leading to reduced tower efficiency and inflated costs.


Debris, dirt and dust are the primary agents causing this issue, although exposure to other contaminants like bacterial growth and corrosion can also cause the issue.Like other issues, fouling will reduce efficiency of the system, increase energy usage and hence operational expenses.

Microbiological Contamination

The warm and nutrient heavy water of the cooling system is the ideal breeding ground for bacterial and other microbiological growths. This becomes even more of an issue when the growths result in biofilm, which has the ability to negatively impact the system’s operations, being infinitely more insulating than scale deposits.The biofilm promotes corrosion and scaling, and rapidly inflates energy costs.

Cooling Tower Solutions

Maintaining an efficient cooling system requires efficient maintenance of the water treatment program and that requires selecting the right chemical treatment program.Each of the four issues that can affect the system are equally important to manage, with all having an equally big impact on the efficiency of the system. To complicate matters, water quality and chemistry varies from location to location, so there is no universally effective treatment that would work will all the issues in every situation. To set up an efficient cooling system, the first step is to select a chemical treatment program that proves effective is managing all four issues.

Prevention is More Effective and Cheaper than Repair

Ultimately, investing on effective preventative measures right at the beginning will save you a lot of money on repairs and replacements later on, because your cooling system will eventually be plagued by these issues. Leaving these issues unchecked could result in unscheduled breakdowns and downtime, as well as unplanned repair costs that could be crippling for the facility and daily operations.

Cooling Tower Maintenance Service

All Kote Lining, Inc. is the one-stop solution for all your cooling tower maintenance, repair, and replacement needs in Phoenix Valley. Our team of experienced technicians will ensure your cooling system issues are identified and solved in a timely and effective manner, saving you considerable money on electrical expensesin the process.

Written by webtechs

Cooling Tower Components | Cooling Tower Parts & Functions

Cooling tower components include: Instrumentation and Electrical Systems, Cooling Tower Nozzles, Cooling Tower Valves, Mechanical Equipment Support, Drive Shafts, Gear Boxes, Cooling Tower Louvers, Fan Deck, Fan Cylinder, Water Distribution Piping, Cooling Tower Fans, Drift Eliminators, Cooling Tower Fill, Cooling Tower Structure, and Cold Water Basin.

Below we go over the individual cooling tower parts and functions.

List Of Cooling Tower Components:

Cooling Tower Parts & Functions

Cooling Tower Instrumentation:

Instrumentation systems found in most cooling towers include Blow Down Rate, Flow Meters For Cooling Tower Makeup Water, Thermocouples for Cold & Hot Water Measurement Of Temperature, Water Level Switches For Cold & Hot Water Basins, Low & High Oil Level Switches, and Vibration Switches.

Cooling Tower Fan Motor:

Cooling Tower Fan Motor

Refinery & Petrochemical cooling tower applications require explosion proof fan motors due to the potentially leaky heat exchangers. Fan motors should be provided with over load relay and Earth fault relay protection systems.

Cooling Tower Nozzles:

Cooling Tower Nozzles

Most cooling tower nozzles are made out of plastic. These plastics include glassfilled nylon, polypropylene, ABS, and PVC plastics. Nozzles allow for uniform distribution of the hot water that’s inside a cooling tower cell.

Distribution Valves:

Distribution Valves are a part of the cooling tower that regulates the flow of hot water to evenly distribute in cells. The valve body in a distribution valve is manufactured to stand up to corrosive environments.

Drive shafts:

Cooling Tower Driveshaft

Drive shafts transmit power the from the motor’s output shaft to the gear reduction unit’s input shaft.

Gear Box:

Gear boxes reduce the amount of speed depending on your cooling tower fan’s requirements. The torque tube permanently alights the gear reducer, driveshaft, and motor.

Cooling Tower Louvers:

Asbestos sheets are what cooling tower louvers are made out of. Louvers serve 2 purposes:  1. Retain the circulating water within a cooling tower. 2. Distribute air flow equally into the fill media.

Fan Cylinder & Fan Deck:


The fan deck is simply a supporting platform for the fan cylinders and also creates an access way to the water distributions system and fan.

Water Distribution Piping:

Water distribution piping requires burial underground or needs to be supported in ground to avoid thrust loading of the cooling tower due to water pressure in the pipe and self weight.

Cooling Tower Fans:

Cooling Tower Fans - Cooling Tower Components

Cooling tower fans are one the major parts/components of cooling towers. Most cooling tower fans are made out of hot-dipped galvanized steel, Glass Fiber, (FRP) Fiber Reinforced Plastic, and Aluminum. FRP is one of the best options because it is light weight and reduces the energy requirements (energy consumption) of the cooling tower fan. Pinch blade angles of cooling tower fan blades are varied depending on the season. For example, the pinch angle is increases during the summer season when the density is low to increase the capacity of the fan.

Cooling Tower Structure:

Cooling Tower Structure

The most common cooling tower structure is made up of Wood (Chemically Treated). Although, some newer cooling towers are being manufactured using FRP and Reinforced Cement Concrete (RCC) depending on the application the cooling tower is need for.

Cold Water Basin:

Cold water basins serve two functions and are normally manufactured using RCC. The first function of a cold water basin is to act as storage and collect cold water from the tower. The second function of a cold water basin is the provide the main structure and foundation for the cooling tower itself. Cold water basins usually lye below ground level or on top of the soil. Cooling tower height is found my measuring the distance between the fan assembly to the top of the water basin.


Drift Eliminators:


Eliminators reduce the amount of water that escapes into the discharge air in the cooling tower.  They project air in multiple directions and prevent unnecessary loss of water. These drift eliminators are manufactured using PVC. More passes through the drift eliminator will decrease the amount of drift loss while also increasing the pressure drop which increases the fan power consumption. For larger industrial applications, some use heavy duty drift eliminators.

Cooling Tower Fill Media:

Cooling tower fill media puts as much air in contact with as much water surface area as possible. The film fills make the water form in thing flowing sheets so that the most amount of water surface area interacts with the flow of air. Fill media is manufactured using either wood, polypropylene, or PVC. There are three different types of fill media including: Vertical fill (Splash Fill), Vertical offset fill (Splash Fill), and cross corrugated fill (Film Fill).

Thank you for reading our “Cooling Tower Components” list. Stay tuned for more from the experts at All Kote Lining Inc.

Written by webtechs

Cooling Tower Replacement Cost

If you’re searching for “cooling tower replacement cost” you’re facing a costly proposition.  The majority of cooling tower manufacturers say the average life span of a commercial cooling tower is about 15 to 20 years.

After 20 years the cooling towers need to be replaced or rebuilt.  That means commercial spaces built before the year 2000 have cooling towers that need to be replaced or rebuilt.  Commercial property owners can save thousands of dollars having cooling tower refurbishment instead of breaking the bank replacing them.  Read more about the cost of replacing cooling towers below.

Cooling Tower Replacement Cost

The cost of cooling tower replacement is about $50,000 per 200-ton cooling tower.  Large commercial spaces will use more than one of these 200-ton cooling towers so the cost of replacing the cooling tower system can easily reach $200,000 for the units, labor, and crane to lift them into place.

Replacement Cost Per Ton

Cooling towers are rated on how much air they can process in tons.  The replacement cost per ton depends on the brand of cooling tower, size, and any options for water treatment and epoxy coatings.  The larger the cooling tower the more they cost to buy, transport, and have craned onto a roof.  Property owners who already own cooling tower equipment can save an incredible amount of money by refurbishing cooling towers instead of replacing.

Cooling Tower Refurbishment Cost

All Kote Lining Inc. can restore your aging cooling towers and make them like new for a faction of the cost!  Depending on the size of the cooling tower system we can save commercial property owners literally tens of thousands of dollars over cooling tower replacement costs.

For the same type of 4-unit 200-ton cooling tower system refurbishment will cost around $80,000.  That is a $120,000-dollar saving!  And many times, the cost of cooling tower refurbishment isn’t classified as repairs instead of capital equipment.  This can mean some property owners will be able to get funding for the refurbishment.

Phoenix Valley Cooling Tower Refurbishment

If you own a commercial property and your cooling towers have reached the end of their lifespan All Kote Lining Inc. can save you thousands of dollars.  Our team offers complete cooling tower refurbishment that will save your company tens of thousands of dollars over buying and installing new cooling towers.  Cooling tower refurbishment adds about another 15 years of life to your equipment and helps you get your money’s worth out of your original investment in your cooling tower or property.

Written by webtechs

Benefits of Cooling Tower Repair

Should you choose to ignore your cooling tower’s operating condition for an extended amount of time it can prove to be detrimental, costing a lot more in the long run to have it fixed. If your cooling tower looks good, then chances are that it is no longer working well either and you need to have it checked out by a team of professional specialists and get it back to its optimal operating condition, whether it is in need of being repaired or restored.

Cooling Tower Repair Benefits

Here at All Kote, we are considered to be industry leaders and we remain as the forefront in our sector because we provide you with practical solutions to all issues related to cooling towers. Below we will be looking at several of the benefits of cooling tower repair and maintenance.


There can be significant health risks involved when a cooling tower is left to corrode and deteriorate. Cases have been known where a tower that was coated with epoxy or a powder coating caused the internal steel substrates to start corroding, which created a micro aquatic bacterial growth.

This is something that can cause Pseudomonas, Legionella, and Biofilm, which can create severe problems to the health of those in the vicinity of that tower.


Anytime we carry out repair work to your cooling tower, we always make certain that we leave its structure in its best possible condition, ensuring it remains durable, as well as resilient for future use. We leave your tower protected from an attack of bacteria and capable to handle high levels of chemical resistance and impacts because we apply our own unique coating system of urethane which is an anti-corrosion material.


If our team of professionals carry out the repairing of your cooling tower it will reduce the number of repairs, it is going to need in the future. Many towers face an ongoing problem that consists of the mastic in between the joints, and this is prone to getting chemical attacks, and losing its much-needed elasticity over a period of time. When this is left untreated it causes the structure to start leaking, and turning into a very disastrous situation for you to have to manage.”

Future Maintenance

We can prevent the leaking of chemicals and water coming from the mastic/joints by using our special repair techniques and coatings, ensuring that your tower has been left with an easy to clean finish for your convenience in keeping your tower at its optimal condition, having the benefit of less downtime. Our expert repairs to cooling towers has been proved to be beneficial countless times. We are a highly experienced company with the ability to continue ensuring the work, the efficiency, and the excellent condition of your cooling towers to have a long-term future, subsequently, also ensuring the peace of mind of all of our clients.

Phoenix Valley Cooling Tower Repair Service

If you’re looking for the best cooling tower repair and refurbishment, All Kote Lining Inc. is here to serve you.  Cooling towers are expensive investments in your commercial or industrial properties and should last as long as humanly possible.  Taking care of the cooling tower through regular maintenance and refurbishment is the key to getting the maximum amount of years from your equipment and saving money.  Our services save you money in making the equipment last longer and use less energy.  For more information about how our team can help repair and maintain your cooling towers in the Phoenix Valley please call 480-966-4446.

Written by webtechs

How To: Controlling Biofilm in Cooling Towers

Controlling biofilm in cooling towers is the priority of any property owner.  Biofilm robs your system of it’s efficiency and left unchecked can lead to the development of bacteria. Other than the specter of MIC eating on the metallic parts of your cooling system, aggregations of biofilms additionally repress heat transfer in the condenser tubes and can gather on cooling tower fill to the point where it can crumple the fill support and make serious damage to the cooling tower.

How To Control Biolfilm

The way to keep up control over microbiological populaces in power plant cooling water is to give a steady level of treatment consistently. That is, the treatment should be reliably powerful. The real convergences of biocide required to give this level of treatment may change essentially, contingent upon cooling water conditions and nature.

Some power plants find that they can stun treat the cooling water system for an hour daily amid the greater part of the year and slice back to a few times per week amid the winter while still appropriately controlling biofouling in their system. Other power plants do not just require every day or even consistent bolster of dye, yet additionally need to include extra nonoxidizing biocides amid the midyear months.

Oxidizing Biocide

The most widely recognized strategy for establishing that you are adding adequate oxidizing biocide to control microbiological fouling is the free chlorine test. This is a base and ought to be performed amid every chlorination cycle, or day by day for those that ceaselessly chlorinate. As conditions change the measure of blanch required to create the coveted free accessible chlorine leftover will change, and the plant ought to react by expanding or diminishing the biocide nourish rate likewise. Note that oxidation diminishment potential (ORP) isn’t a decent sign of microbiological control in cooling water. ORP is not a viable replacement for testing free accessible chlorine.

The Role of Chlorine

Getting the Full Benefit from Chlorine. A full exchange of the different sorts of biocides and advancing methodologies for their utilization is past the extent of this article. In any case, it is great to say a couple of words in regards to the most widely recognized biocide utilized as a part of energy plants: chlorine.

Already, the most widely recognized wellspring of chlorine was chlorine gas delivered to control plants as a dense fluid in 1-ton chambers. It was dissipated and cleared into the cooling water lines as a gas. At the point when chlorine gas broke down in water, it shaped hydrochloric corrosive and hypochlorous corrosive. The hydrochloric corrosive brought down the cooling water pH somewhat, which improved the impact of hypochlorous corrosive as a biocide. Evident worries about security were the essential reason that power plants moved far from the utilization of 1-ton chlorine barrels to sodium hypochlorite commercial bleach conveyance.

Commercial bleach can be commonly provided at 10% or 12.5% chlorine. 1 lb of chlorine gas will make 0.74 lb of hypochlorousacid, while 1 gallon of 12.5% bleach can possibly create 0.875 pounds of hypochlorous acid, if there is adequate hydrogen particle in the cooling water to shape the acid.

Commercial bleach is produced by gurgling chlorine gas into a scathing arrangement. Some additional scathing intentionally stays in the sanitizer to moderate the decay of hypochlorite to chlorates. The run of the mill pH of commercial bleach is near 11.5 and 13.5. Bleach arrangements that have a pH of 11 or less deteriorate quickly.

So the use of chlorine gas when compared to the use of bleach has the potential to increase the pH of cooling water. It has been stated that hypochlorous acid is more effective as a biocide than the hypochlorite ion. Thus, bleach loses its activity as a biocide in high pH cooling waters.

Sodium Hypochlorite Solutions

Sodium hypochlorite solutions will begin to decompose the minute they are created. They decompose along with 2 chemical pathways: by forming chlorate and by releasing oxygen. In quality hypochlorite solutions, the formation of chlorate is the main pathway. A variety of factors may accelerate the decomposition of bleach. The most critical are exposure to UV radiation, concentration, temperature, and time.

  • Bleach will decompose over time. It is calculated that 90F storage, a 10% bleach solution will lose half of the effective hypochlorite concentration in 95 days. You may use a tank of bleach in a few weeks, you may want to ask the supplier how long it has been in storage before arriving at your facility.
  • In just 60 days at 68F storage, bleach will lose 17% of the hypochlorite, where at 90F it will lose 55%. The temperature needs to be a consideration in placing a hypochlorite storage tank.
  • UV Radiation. UV rays from sunlight can decompose bleach solutions. Your bleach tanks need to be made from UV resistant materials or coated in a way that it will exclude UV light or place them inside.
  • The more concentrated the bleach solution is, the faster it will decompose. If your site is not a big bleach use, it may be best to stick with a 10% bleach solution instead of a higher concentration.

Other factors that will have an effect on the decomposition rate will include concentration of chlorides, and transition metals that may get into the bleach from caustic that was used in the manufacture or in the piping and tank materials where the bleach is stored. The nickel level in bleach needs to be less than 0.1 mg per 1 and copper needs to be less than 1 mg per 1.

Testing Bulk Chemicals

It is essential to test Bulk Chemicals. It becomes the chemistry personnel to check the hypochlorite concentration in every shipment of blanch before it is offloaded into their tank. One plant addressed why it was all of a sudden not accomplishing a free accessible chlorine remaining in its cooling water, as it had previously. A check of the detergent mass tank found that the fixation in the tank was just 2.5% dye. Clearly, the past dye conveyance was not the 10% dye the provider asserted it was. Basic hypochlorite test packs are accessible for this reason.

Avoid Bromine in Towers

Bromine Is Not a Biocide. At times I hear individuals alluding to their cooling water science as “bromine” science. Bromine is a rosy dark colored gas and exceptionally lethal (like its neighbor in the intermittent table—chlorine gas). Isn’t something that ought to ever be created at a power plant. The utilization of sodium bromide to improve the biocidal properties of blanch at higher cooling water pH esteems, in any case, is extremely normal.

It is vital to remember that sodium bromide isn’t a biocide. It is a simple salt that has no biocidal properties. It will only have them it has reacted with hypochlorous acid properly and not bleach that will form the hypobromous acid, which will be the desired biocide.

Stabilized hypobromous acid is also available at various chemical vendors. This helps to eliminate the need to mix sodium bromide and bleach on site. However,it will be more expensive to purchase the stabilized hypobromous acid than to make it.

Cooling Tower Maintenance & Repair

If you own or operate a facility in the Phoenix Valley that needs cooling tower maintenance or repair we can help!  All Kote Lining, Inc. specializes in cooling tower repair and refurbishment.   A big part of cooling tower maintenance is controlling and removing biofilm.  If you’ve got a cooling tower that needs some attention, give us a call. We also provide chiller repair & maintenance and tank coating services.

Call today to schedule an appointment – 480-966-4446

Written by webtechs

What Caused The Disneyland Legionnaries’ Disease Outbreak?

If you’re searching for “Disneyland Legionnaries’ Disease” you’re likely trying to understand what shut down Disneyland’s Cooling Towers in November of 2017.  Naturally everyone wanting to visit the park will want to understand what Legionnaries’ Disease is, and how it happened.  The source of the outbreak that affected 9 people finds its source in 2 of the park’s cooling towers.

What Is Legionnaries’ Disease?

Legionallosis is caused by Legionella bacteria which leads to a respiratory disease.  Legionnnaries’ Diease is a serious form of pneumonia which can be potentially life threatening.  The disease is not contagious, so it cannot be transmitted from person to person.  It develops in the natural environment typically around water and doesn’t typically make anyone sick.

In areas where there are manmade water systems such as cooling towers it can be carried via the moisture exhausted from cooling towers.  This exhaust is simply steam and the water droplets can be inhaled.  For this reason cooling tower maintenance and cooling tower water treatments are so important.  Allowing biological growth in the cooling tower can lead to Legionella and potentially make people sick.

Symptoms Of Legionnaries’ Disease

If you or someone you know has visited Disneyland lately you might be concerned that they have been exposed.  While many people can be exposed to the disease and have no reaction there are people who will.  Those with compromised immune systems, are elderly, or have chronic respiratory problems are especially at risk.  Watch for the following symptoms of Legionnaries’ Disease.

High Fever – Chills – Cough

Symptoms develop within between 2 to 10 days after being exposed to the bacteria, so watch carefully during this period of time.  Anyone over the age of 50 should immediately seek the attention of their doctor if they show signs of Legionarries’ Disease after a visit to the park.

Click the links below for more information:

[one-half-first]Center For Disease Control on Legionella

Disneyland’s Statement On Legionella[/one-half-first]
[one-half]Read Newsweek’s Report On The Incident

Live Science On Cooling Towers & Legionnaries’[/one-half]

Cooling Tower Cleaning & Maintenance

Do you have a commercial location that uses cooling tower?  They are part of the HVAC systems, industrial processes, and hospital operation in the Phoenix Valley and need to be kept clean to avoid bacterial infections.  Keeping your cooling tower in good condition is the job of cooling tower maintenance companies, and All Kote is Phoenix’ go to source for the best service.  If you’re not if your cooling tower is at risk give us a call to make sure your CDC and OSHA compliant for your cooling towers.

Reach our dedicated team of cooling tower maintenance technicians at 480-966-4446

Written by webtechs

Cooling Tower Fire Protection

Cooling towers are an integral part of operations for many commercial and industrial facilities.  If a cooling tower is lost, it will likely have a significant impact on the operation of the facility.  Cooling tower fire protection is an important part of managing a large commercial or industrial operation.

Cooling Towers & Materials

Many industrial processes are not possible without the cooling that cooling towers provide.  A cooling tower, as many of us know, is to transfer heat from one medium to another.  Much like a motor and a radiator in a vehicle an industrial process that produces heat will need to be cooled.  Depending on the application you will find all sorts of designs, sizes, and materials used in the fabrication of cooling towers.  The largest cooling towers are found in nuclear power plants and are monoliths.

Cooling Tower Fabrication

Cooling towers are made from a number of materials such as metal frames, metal parts, plastic fill, and wood.  The cooling tower itself or the fill media that is used to maximize air and water contact can be flammable. Depending on the materials it is possible for the dry areas in a cooling tower to be exceptionally flammable.  This might surprise people with the quantity of water cooling towers typically handle.

Mitigating Fire Hazards in Cooling Towers

Clearly there is a risk of fire in a cooling tower so taking proactive preventative steps is important.  It is a best practice if the cooling towers can be located a distance from combustible materials or structures.  Cooling towers should be designed with fire barriers to help prevent fire from spreading through the tower and into the buildings.

It is critical that there are firefighting appliances like standpipes and fire hydrants be installed close to the cooling tower.  Cooling towers also present a potential lightning risk with the metal used in their fabrication and parts.  For this reason cooling towers should be provided with lightning protection.  For more information refer to NFPA 214 Standard on Water-Cooling Towers.

FRP Cooling Tower Fire Protection

With the emergence and popularity operators and manufacturers of fiber-reinforced plastics cooling towers a segment of the industry has become convinced that these towers don’t need fire suppression. Manufactures believe the materials they fabricate the towers from are noncombustible and have no need of an automatic sprinkler system. Many of today’s FRP cooling tower manufacturers state their fill materials and towers have been evaluated to be within codes such as the ASTM E84, this is no guarantee that they are non-combustible. It’s important to realized that the ASTM E 84 does not classify materials heat release rate or combustibility.

FRP Cooling Tower Fire Testing

The only way to know for sure if a automatic sprinkler system is needed is the Factory Mural Research Approval for the tower.  This means that unless the materials and fill are made from masonry, concrete, metal, or tile or have otherwise been proven to be noncombustible they should be treated as combustible.  Following that logic all FRP cooling towers made from materials that are no definitively noncombustible will need automatic sprinkler protection to mitigate the risk of fire in the tower.

The Importance of Cooling Tower Fire Protection

Not assessing or ignoring potential fire hazards is an unnecessary risk in any building, whether it be commercial, industrial, or residential.   If you have substandard fire protection it is a lose-lose situation.  While installing and operating a cheaper cooling tower which doesn’t feature fire mitigation systems might save a few dollar in the short term, it will cost in the long term.

At best the higher insurance premiums will offset any savings from not installing the fire control systems.  And worst the lives of your personnel will be at risk, along with the property itself.  Replacing, rebuilding, and downtime are enormously costly for just about every industrial or commercial facility.  Invest in protecting your cooling tower from fire hazards and have the peace of mind that your cooling tower is not a liability.   For help with all your cooling tower maintenance needs in the Phoenix Valley contact All Kote Lining, Inc.

Written by webtechs

Heating and Cooling Technologies

If you’re searching for Heating and cooling technologies and want to understand how they work this article will help you.  Common heating and cooling technologies including cooling towers, evaporation coolers, and humidifiers.  All of these devices help keep our residential, commercial, and industrial properties warm in the winter and cool in the summer.  It is these hard working mechanical systems that make our modern world comfortable and practical.

Cooling Towers | Evaporative Coolers | Humidifiers

Cooling Towers

A cooling tower happens to be used to cool off the circulating water that is used in power stations, oil refineries and chemical plants as well as for large scaled AC units. They are going to be the largest non-residential water consumers. Water that falls through the tower will be cooled because of evaporating and then it is returned to the tower top. The water that will drop into the basin will be about 10 degrees cooler than the water that is returned to the top. Towers will vary in size from large structures to small roof top units. The taller the tower is, the greater the temperature drop will be.

Water that is lost by evaporating, drift and bleed off which is water that is used to carry away the mineral buildup within the cooling tower. Water will need to be added to the system to make up for the loss which is called makeup water. Evaporated water loss from a cooling tower can be estimated to be 3 gallons of water per minute for 100 tons of water cooled. That means that a tower that has 500 tons of cooling will evaporate almost 22,000 gallons of water over a 24 hour period of operation.

Bleed-off Reduction

A major way to help improvewater efficiency of the cooling tower is to actually being to reduce the bleed off amount. Water can be reduced by 20% or more by circulating the water through the tower a few more times before bleed off happens. This results in a higher concentration ratio. A cooler’s concentration ratio is the measure of water use efficiency. The higher that the ratio is, the more water efficient it is.

Bleed-off Reuse

Cooling tower bleed off may be used to irrigate plants that aren’t sensitive to high salt content. Another type of option is to send it to water treatment plants. Not only would these options save water, but they may also save money through reduced sewer and water costs.

Use of Sulfuric Acid

Using sulfuric acid within the chemical treatment of a cooling tower will help to prevent scale buildup, so that the water is able to circulate more times before it is discarded or any makeup water is added. If the sulfuric acid treatment isn’t practical or feasible, then carboxylated polymers called carboxylates may be used in order to control the pH and prevent scale. The carboxylate solubility is double without any treatment but less than using sulfuric acid.

Conductivity Controller

A conductivity controller is a device will automatically control the blowdown based on the number of concentration cycles that may be safely done. The resulting conductivity which is measured in microsegments per centimeter or uS/cm. The conductivity controller may continuously measure the conductivity of the cooling tower water as well as the discharge water whenever the conductivity set point has been exceeded.


Evaporative coolers also called swamp coolers will increase the humidity of incoming air that is being drawn into the building and decreases the temperature. After a bit of time, recirculating the water in the evaporative cooler will assume the entering air temperature. This temperature is going to be the lowest temperature that the air may be cooled too.

The principal opportunity for conservation of water that is used is to help reduce the flow of bleed off from the coolers. Normally on a small stream of bleed off is needed for operation, however excessive amounts of water are often bled off. This wastes water and impairs the cooling efficiency of the cooler because the water doesn’t get as cold as possible.

There are 3 common types of evaporative coolers: dump pump, recirculating, and non-recirculating. The bleed off from all of these can be used to irrigate plants that aren’t sensitive to high salt content.

Recirculating Evaporative Cooler

This cooler type, the water will run off the pads and is captured and recirculated multiple times before it is discarded. A small amount of bleed off will be needed to control concentrations of contaminants within the water and to prevent damage to the cooler pads, which allow it to effectively operate. Bleed off valves may be adjusted to discharged the minimum amount of water needed. Recirculating evaporative coolers will only use about 3 gallons of water per hour.

“Dump pump” Evaporative Cooler

A dump pump will automatically empty and refill the water collection pan every few hours.

Once-through Cooling for Equipment

Within dry climates, equipment may be cooled using single pass or once through water. This is a very intensive water cooling process as the water is passed through and it cools the equipment, the water is discarded. Equipment that may be cooled by once through water are x-ray machines, degreasers, air conditioners, vacuum pumps, welders, hydraulic presses, air compressors, viscosity baths, condensers, hydraulic equipment, and rectifiers. Most types of water cooled equipment may be replaced by air cooled, energy efficient models. Water usage may be reduced through recirculation by using water from a non-portable source and by reusing the once through water for other purposes like irrigation or cooling towers. These practices help to save water and may also save money by decreased sewer and water costs.

In active management areas in Arizona, the ADWR prohibits using once through cooling water by industries that have their own wells unless the water is being reused.

Boiler & Steam Generators

Boilers are used within large heating systems of in those industries where a large amount of process steam is used. Water will be added to a boiler system to make up for any water loss and to help replace water loss whenever the boiler is blown down to remove solids that have built up. Whenever it is practical, steam condensate will need to be captured and returned to the boiler to be reused as makeup water. Condensate return systems will save water, reduce costs of pretreating boiler feed water and reduces energy use. Boiler operating costs could be reduced by 70% by installing a condensate return system. Water that is consumed by boiler systems may vary depending on the system size, how much steam is used, and the amount of condensate return.

Expansion Tanks

Expansion tanks help to provide a cushion of air for expansion of water when it heats. This helps to save water in 2 ways. It helps to prevent the pressure relief valve from being opened and discharging water to help relieve pressure and then it eliminates the need to use cold water when mixing valves to cool blow down because it will be condensed and cooled in the expansion tank. In a steel expansion tank, the air and water will touch each other. In a bladder expansion tank, the water and air will be separated by a diaphragm.


Humidifiers are often used to add moisture to the air through evaporation, which increases the relative humidity levels. There are 2 major types of humidifiers: central humidifiers and room humidifiers. A room humidifier is a self-container unit that isn’t connected to a water supply line. The reservoir is manually filled. A central humidifier will be connected to a central heating system and water supply line. The reservoir is automatically filled.

Water-Conserving Humidifiers

Humidifiers will have a continuous bleed off system and waste water. In these particular humidifiers, a constant water stream will leave the reservoir and will enter the sewer system at the same time that a continuous stream of water will fill up the reservoir. However the use of a Recirculating humidifier will not constantly drain and replace the water. There are some concerns about sick building syndrome. An alternative to this would be to reuse discarded water for another purpose like irrigating plants instead of sending to the sewer. Another option is to adjust the discharge amount to the minimum amount of water to avoid too much bleed off. Timers may be used to turn off and on the humidifiers based on your seasonal needs, or to control whenever the water is pumped out of the reservoir to remove mineral buildup.

Mist Cooling Systems

These types of systems have become readily available to home owners and businesses as a great cooling option in areas that have low humidity and high temperatures. Water will be pumped through the system and released as a fine spray that evaporates which form a cool barrier against dry, hot air. Each misting nozzle will only use about a half of a gallon of water each hour. In order to conserve water, the system should only be used whenever people are using the area. There are some systems that have sensors that turn off the misters when no one is around, or there are off/on switches that can be activated when needed. It is also best to use the misters that have nozzles that may be independently controlled so that you are able to direct the nozzles right so that the system will only cool the intended areas and turn off misters when it is too humid or windy for them to work properly.

Phoenix Valley Cooling Tower & Chiller Maintenance

If your commercial or industrial location features a cooling tower or chiller keeping them in good working order is critical.  Not only is controlling biological growth required by law, but neglecting the condition of your chillers or cooling towers reduces their life expectancy and diminishes performance.  That means they are using more energy, impacting your bottom line, and wearing out more quickly.  Maintain your industrial heating and cooling equipment with service from All Kote Lining, Inc.

Written by webtechs

When Does Cooling Tower Fill Need Replacing?

A lot of building owners and property managers ask the question, “When Does Cooling Tower Fill Need Replacing?”.  There are 5 signs that your cooling tower fill media is worn out and needs to be replaced.  When the fill isn’t doing its job properly the cooling tower is using much more energy to do its job.  Save money, service your cooling tower, and make sure the fill is working properly.

Five Signs To Replace Cooling Tower Fill

There are 5 many signs that your cooling tower fill needs to be replaced.  Read through this list to better understand what to watch for, and know when you need to call your local cooling tower maintenance company.

Increased Energy Consumption

When fill isn’t doing its job properly the water flowing through the cooling tower isn’t getting cooled.  This means that to do the job the cooling tower is designed to do at your location it will take more electricity to do the same job.  While electricity prices to change if you’ve seen a marked increase in your bill you might check the cooling tower and the cooling tower fill.

Calcium Buildup

Makeup water contains a lot of dissolved solids and one of them in calcium.  Calcium from hard water will build up in the fill causing blockages.  When your fill is clogged the air and water cannot pass through and the cooling tower will not work.  In some cases the fill can be cleaned, in others the buildup is severe enough to require cooling tower fill replacement.

Uneven Distribution of Water

All cooling towers are designed to maximize the contact between the water and air running through them.  When the water isn’t being distributed properly because the fill is damaged or clogged it dramatically impacts the performance of the cooling tower.  Much more energy will need to be used to get the necessary cooling needed for your industrial application or HVAC system.

Warped or Sagging Fill Packs

Poor quality or old fill may warp from heat or sag with age.  If this happens you can expect that there is incredibly uneven water distribution.  Replacement of fill is a great option in these cases as one of the common reason fill sags or warps is that it simply old or has been damaged.

Damaged Support Grids

Support grids are the structure that holds your fill in place.  If water has degraded the structure, or there have been other types of damage your fill will not be performing correctly.  This can be a cause for fill packs to sag, warp, or simply fall out of place.  If your fill isn’t sitting where it should be, it isn’t doing its job.  Invest in your cooling tower maintenance and ensure that your support grids are up to par.

Phoenix Valley Cooling Tower Maintenance

There are a number of important cooling tower maintenance tasks to keep your cooling tower running at optimum efficiency.  Fill is one of the most important elements for the performance of the cooling tower.  It is where the hot cycle water goes to be cooled by the air flowing through the fill.  If your fill has buildup, clogging, or is damaged we can help!

Contact us for help with your cooling tower needs – 480-966-4446

Written by webtechs

Top Maintenance Problems For Cooling Towers

Proper cooling tower maintenance is the foundation for managing every HVAC system.  When systems are designed well and properly maintained they will offer occupants in residential, industrial, and commercial properties comfort all year long.  While this is the goal cooling towers are many times not given much attention until something is wrong.

The cooling tower is a critical element of a well-functioning HVAC system but will have problems without proper and regular maintenance.  The monolith cooling towers common at power plants are made from concrete require less maintenance than the smaller units common on industrial sites, commercial buildings, or large residential buildings.  Cooling towers are neglected many times simply because they are on the roof and difficult to repair or maintain.

Cooling Towers Are A Corrosive Environment

While large power plant cooling towers are typically made from concrete these smaller roof top units are made from galvanized steel.  Over time the hot and humid conditions in cooling towers leads to chemical attack and corrosion of the steel.  With air, heat, chemicals, and water coursing through the cooling tower as its primary function it isn’t surprising that it is an exceptionally corrosive environment.

Most Common Cooling Tower Problems

Various parts of the cooling tower are made from different materials and are exposed to varied degrees of heat, water, air, and chemicals.  So which are the most common cooling tower problems?  The key in maintaining equipment instead of paying to replace it is regular inspection.  Catching cooling tower maintenance issues while they are small preserve the condition of your cooling tower and reduce costs.

Chemical Attack & Corrosion

Cooling towers are a heat exchange device which functions by passing hot water and air by each other to cool the liquid.  This accompanied by the presence of chemicals which reduce dissolved solids adds up to an incredibly corrosive environment.  Even with the best made parts from select materials like galvanized steel corrosion is a real problem. Corrosion will lead to diminished performance and worse mean the cooling tower is unsafe.  Common areas which experience corrosion are seams and joints along with some parts like the holding pans, diffuser trays, and framework.  These repairs if not caught while small can add up to costly leaks and repairs.

Pipeline Corrosion

The pipelines that connect the HVAC system to the cooling tower are also susceptible to issues.  Internal and external conditions can cause the development of corrosion that lead to thin and through wall defects in pipes.  These issues or leaks impact the efficiency and overall performance of the HVAC system significantly.  One common issue is the paint systems designed to protect the cooling tower from corrosion.  These paints or coatings when not properly applied or not of the highest quality will not last as long or provide a durable cooling tower coating.  More than simply costly repair issues leaks along with heat and water provide the perfect environment to develop a Legionnaries’ disease outbreak.

Mechanical Failure & Damage

When inspections and maintenance are not done regularly or properly mechanical issues can mean excessive strain and wear on your cooling tower system.  Loose pulleys and fan hubs will end up scored and mean worn fan shafts.  When the mechanical components of your cooling tower are not well lubricated or maintained properly it will mean downtime and costly repairs.

Impingement Erosion

Dust particles and moisture commonly cause damage to the leading edge of the fan blades due to impingement.  This process causes erosion and corrosion of the fan blades that diminishes the efficiency of the entire system.  In extreme cases corrosion can be so advanced that there is no option but complete replacement.

Cooling Tower Corrosion Solution

Clearly corrosion is a major issue for cooling towers and needs to be addressed.  Ignoring the issue allows corrosion to fester and potentially go beyond mere repair and require replacement of parts, or worse the entire cooling tower.  Replacing a cooling tower is an overwhelmingly large expensive for any industrial or commercial property. Avoid this budget killer and invest in prevention with inspection, regular maintenance, and quality polymeric coating solutions.

Polymeric cooling tower coatings can be used to seal and protect pipework, restore and protect fan blades, rebuild mechanical components, and help prevent internal corrosion.

Phoenix Valley Cooling Tower Maintenance

If you have a residential, industrial, or commercial cooling tower that needs maintenance in the Phoenix Valley, All Kote Lining Inc. is here to help!  We inspect your cooling tower to catch potentially costly repair issues while they are small, offer affordable repairs, and provide long lasting durable corrosion protecting cooling tower coatings.  For more information about how our cooling tower maintenance services will help extend the life of your cooling tower and help you save on energy costs running it, call us today!

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