Written by craig braddick

What is OSHA?

Upwards of 90 million people in the US are spending their days on the job. As a nation, they’re our most important resource. And shockingly up until 1970, there were no unified and concise requirements available for safety in the workplace and their protection against health risks.

How did OSHA Form?

In 1970, Congress took into consideration annual figures like these:

  • Job-related accidents took into account for more than 14,000 worker deaths.
  • Almost 2 1/2 million workers had been disabled.
  • 10 times as many person-days were missed from occupational disabilities as from strikes.
  • Approximated new cases of job-related diseases reached 300,000

Regarding lost production and income, compensation for disability and expenses, medical, the burden on the nation’s commerce was astounding. The human cost was outside calculations. Consequently, the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1979 was passed by both parties of Congress “…to assure so far as possible every working man and woman in the Nation safe and healthful working conditions and to preserve our human resources.”

What does OSHA Stand For?

Under Congress’ Act, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) was developed under the Department of Labor.

In simple terms, OSHA is the Occupational Safety and Health Administration and its responsibility for worker safety and health safeguarding.

Since its creation in 1970, OSHA has reduced the work fatality rate in excess of half, decreased the general injury and illness rates in industries that OSHA has focused its attention, practically eliminated brown lung disease in textile industries and decreased excavation and trenching deaths by 35%.

OSHA is managed through the Department of Labor (DOL). The Department of Labor regulates and enforces in excess of 180 federal laws. These regulations and the mandates that execute them cover a lot of workplace activities for around 10 million employers and their 125 million employees.

Who Does OSHA Cover?

OSHA establishes which standards are applied to your workplace and requires you to comply with these terms and conditions.

Every single employee and their employers under Federal Government jurisdiction are covered by OSHA. Coverage is offered one of two ways, directly by federal OSHA or under state programs. OSHA doesn’t cover self-employed individuals or immediate members of a farm family that don’t employ outside workers.

OSHA provides a comprehensive Website at osha.gov that includes sections dedicated to training, state programs, small business, construction, in addition to interactive eTools to assist employers and their employees.

OSHA also provides training programs to get hazard recognition for employers and their employees. Many states at the moment require training.

Phoenix Chiller Maintenance & Repair

If you have a industrial or commercial building that uses chillers All Kote Lining, Inc. can help maintain and repair your chiller.  Regular chiller maintenance, chiller tube coating, and other quality services help chillers be more efficient, use less energy, and ultimately last longer. Give us a call to find out what we can do for you and your chillers in the Phoenix Valley.

Call Today – 480-966-4446

Crossflow Vs Cooling
Written by craig braddick

Counterflow And Crossflow Cooling Towers

Crossflow Cooling Towers

With a crossflow tower, hot water flows downward from a distribution basin while air flows horizontally. They are filled with splash type fillings and can be applied when water has higher suspended particles. At Industrial Cooling Solutions, we offer crossflow towers in induced draft, forced draft, concrete, FRP, and wood structure as well as splash fill, film fill and low fouling fill materials. ICS cooling towers are built to withstand the most demanding of situations and provide the most cost-effective solution for you.


  • High Performance
  • Low Maintenance
  • Low Noise
  • Optimized Power Consumption

Counterflow Cooling Towers

A counterflow mechanism is one where air flows vertically through the fillings or packing at the top while water flows downward. In a counterflow cooling tower, there is an induced draught fan that is attached to the motor. This fan pulls in air to draft it upward resulting in air that is exhausted faster than it is pulled in. In turn, you’ll see lower pressure and circulation.


  • Low Power Consumption
  • Low Fouling Film or Splash fills
  • Plume Abated Systems
  • Low Pumphead
  • High Performance with Minimal Maintenance
  • Optimized Footprint
  • FRP Wood or Concrete Structures
Source: http://h2ocooling.com/2018/02/28/counterflow-vs-crossflow/

Phoenix Chiller Maintenance & Repair

If you have a industrial or commercial building that uses chillers All Kote Lining, Inc. can help maintain and repair your chiller.  Regular chiller maintenance, chiller tube coating, and other quality services help chillers be more efficient, use less energy, and ultimately last longer. Give us a call to find out what we can do for you and your chillers in the Phoenix Valley.

Call Today – 480-966-4446

Written by craig braddick

Reopening Water Cooling Towers After COVID-19

The following is from the Centers For Disease Control and Prevention in reference to Water Cooling Towers re-opening following the COVID-19 virus. The full text may be found here: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/php/building-water-system.html

Stagnant, or standing water can cause conditions that increase the risk for growth and spread of Legionella and other biofilm-associated bacteria. When water is stagnant, hot water temperatures can decrease to the Legionella growth range (77–108°F, 25–42°C). Stagnant water can also lead to low or undetectable levels of disinfectant, such as chlorine. Ensure that your water system is safe to use after a prolonged shutdown to minimize the risk of Legionnaires’ disease and other diseases associated with water.

Steps To Take

  1. Develop a comprehensive water management program (WMP) for your water system and all devices that use water. Guidance to help with this process is available from CDC and others.
    1. Water Management Program Toolkit:
      This toolkit is designed to help people understand which buildings and devices need a Legionella water management program to reduce the risk of Legionnaires’ disease, what makes a good program, and how to develop it.
    2. Preventing Legionnaires’ Disease: A Training on Legionella Water Management Programs (PreventLD Training)
      Take this training from CDC and partners on creating a water management program to reduce risk of Legionnaires’ disease. PreventLD Training aligns with industry standards on managing risk of Legionella bacteria.
    3. Hotel Guidance:
      Considerations for Hotel Owners and Managers: How to Prevent Legionnaires’ Disease
    4. Operating Public Hot Tubs for pool staff and owners
    5. From Plumbing to Patients
      Water management programs in healthcare facilities are an important way to help protect vulnerable patient populations as well as staff and visitors.
    6. Preventing Occupational Exposure to Legionella
  2. Ensure your water heater is properly maintained and the temperature is correctly set
    1. Determine if your manufacturer recommends draining the water heater after a prolonged period of disuse. Ensure that all maintenance activities are carried out according to the manufacturer’s instructions or by professionals.
    2. Make sure that your water heater is set to at least 120°F
    3. Higher temperatures can further reduce the risk of Legionella growth, but ensure that you take measures to prevent scalding if you water heater is set to >130°F
  3. Flush your water system
    1. Flush hot and cold water through all points of use (e.g., showers, sink faucets)
      1. Flushing may need to occur in segments (e.g., floors or individual rooms) due to facility size and water pressure. The purpose of building flushing is to replace all water inside building piping with fresh water.
    2. Flush until the hot water reaches its maximum temperature
  4. Clean all decorative water features, such as fountains.
    1. Be sure to follow any recommended manufacturer guidelines for cleaning
    2. Ensure that decorative water features are free of visible slime or biofilm
    3. After the water feature has been re-filled, measure disinfectant levels to ensure that the water is safe for use
  5. Ensure hot tubs/spas are safe for use
    1. Check for existing guidelines from your local or state regulatory agency before use
    2. Ensure that hot tubs/spas are free of visible slime or biofilm before filling with water
    3. Perform a hot tub/spa disinfection procedure before use
      1. CDC Guidance (start at Step 4): https://www.cdc.gov/legionella/downloads/hot-tub-disinfection.pdfpdf icon
  6. Ensure cooling towers are clean and well-maintained
    1. Ensure that cooling towers are maintained (including start-up and shut-down procedures) per manufactures guidelines and industry best practices
    2. Ensure that the tower and basin are free of visible slime or biofilm before use
      1. If the tower appears well-maintained, perform an online disinfection procedure
  7. Ensure safety equipment including fire sprinkler systems, eye wash stations, and safety showers are clean and well-maintained
    1. Regularly flush, clean, and disinfect these systems according to manufacturers’ specifications.
  8. Maintain your water system
    1. Consider contacting your local water utility to learn about any recent disruptions in the water supply. This could include working with the local water utility to ensure that standard checkpoints near the building or at the meter to the building have recently been checked or request that disinfectant residual entering the building meets expected standards.
    2. After your water system has returned to normal, ensure that the risk of Legionella growth is minimized by regularly checking water quality parameters such as temperature, pH, and disinfectant levels.
    3. Follow your water management program, document activities, and promptly intervene when problems arise.


Phoenix Chiller Maintenance & Repair

If you have a industrial or commercial building that uses chillers All Kote Lining, Inc. can help maintain and repair your chiller.  Regular chiller maintenance, chiller tube coating, and other quality services help chillers be more efficient, use less energy, and ultimately last longer. Give us a call to find out what we can do for you and your chillers in the Phoenix Valley.

Call Today – 480-966-4446

Written by webtechs

Cooling Tower Problems Solved

If you’re having cooling tower problems, we have the solutions. This guide lists common problems and solutions for things that cause cooling towers to use more electricity and eventually need repair.

If your cooling tower is giving you trouble and you’re not quite sure what is causing the issue or how to resolve it, you’ve come across the right article. In this article, we aim to help you understand what’s going on, and outline how companies specializing in cooling tower maintenance can resolve the issues and get you going.The quality of your cooling system will depend greatly on the kind of water treatment program you have set up, the better the water treatment program, the more effectively the cooling system will perform. The water treatment program and the quality of water will directly impact the operating costs, reliability, and efficiency of any institutional or industrial cooling system.

Cooling Tower Problems Solved

Four major issues, namely microbiological and bacterial contamination, corrosion, scaling and fouling, plague any cooling system, and these must be monitored and controlled by the facility to ensure the system keeps operating efficiently and reliably. Proper management of these issues will limit the cooling system equipment and operating costs and also ensure that the system does not face downtime due to water related troubles.

Cooling Tower Problems

The treatment for maintaining a reliable cooling system may vary from case to case, but the path remains the same: ensuring that treatment is effective in managing the water related issues. Ensuring that the treatment program chosen is effective enables facilities avoid high operating costs and unexpected repair expenses.


A closed loop system constantly exposed to water is under constant danger of being corroded, and this issue could become unmanageable if it is often ignored during the maintenance process. Neglecting it proper maintenance will lead to leaks that can be costly to repair and the damage can also spread to other systems. Corrosion protective cooling tower contractors can help you get the services you need.


The heat exchange surface enables the cooling system to effectively perform its primary function but can also encourage scale production. The high temperature involved in the process reduces solubility of several elements, like calcium, in the water that can deposit on the heat exchange surface and cause scaling. This layer of scale has insulating tendencies and will hinder effective heat dispersal consequently leading to reduced tower efficiency and inflated costs.


Debris, dirt and dust are the primary agents causing this issue, although exposure to other contaminants like bacterial growth and corrosion can also cause the issue.Like other issues, fouling will reduce efficiency of the system, increase energy usage and hence operational expenses.

Microbiological Contamination

The warm and nutrient heavy water of the cooling system is the ideal breeding ground for bacterial and other microbiological growths. This becomes even more of an issue when the growths result in biofilm, which has the ability to negatively impact the system’s operations, being infinitely more insulating than scale deposits.The biofilm promotes corrosion and scaling, and rapidly inflates energy costs.

Cooling Tower Solutions

Maintaining an efficient cooling system requires efficient maintenance of the water treatment program and that requires selecting the right chemical treatment program.Each of the four issues that can affect the system are equally important to manage, with all having an equally big impact on the efficiency of the system. To complicate matters, water quality and chemistry varies from location to location, so there is no universally effective treatment that would work will all the issues in every situation. To set up an efficient cooling system, the first step is to select a chemical treatment program that proves effective is managing all four issues.

Prevention is More Effective and Cheaper than Repair

Ultimately, investing on effective preventative measures right at the beginning will save you a lot of money on repairs and replacements later on, because your cooling system will eventually be plagued by these issues. Leaving these issues unchecked could result in unscheduled breakdowns and downtime, as well as unplanned repair costs that could be crippling for the facility and daily operations.

Cooling Tower Maintenance Service

All Kote Lining, Inc. is the one-stop solution for all your cooling tower maintenance, repair, and replacement needs in Phoenix Valley. Our team of experienced technicians will ensure your cooling system issues are identified and solved in a timely and effective manner, saving you considerable money on electrical expensesin the process.

Written by webtechs

Cooling Tower Components | Cooling Tower Parts & Functions

Cooling tower components include: Instrumentation and Electrical Systems, Cooling Tower Nozzles, Cooling Tower Valves, Mechanical Equipment Support, Drive Shafts, Gear Boxes, Cooling Tower Louvers, Fan Deck, Fan Cylinder, Water Distribution Piping, Cooling Tower Fans, Drift Eliminators, Cooling Tower Fill, Cooling Tower Structure, and Cold Water Basin.

Below we go over the individual cooling tower parts and functions.

List Of Cooling Tower Components:

Cooling Tower Parts & Functions

Cooling Tower Instrumentation:

Instrumentation systems found in most cooling towers include Blow Down Rate, Flow Meters For Cooling Tower Makeup Water, Thermocouples for Cold & Hot Water Measurement Of Temperature, Water Level Switches For Cold & Hot Water Basins, Low & High Oil Level Switches, and Vibration Switches.

Cooling Tower Fan Motor:

Cooling Tower Fan Motor

Refinery & Petrochemical cooling tower applications require explosion proof fan motors due to the potentially leaky heat exchangers. Fan motors should be provided with over load relay and Earth fault relay protection systems.

Cooling Tower Nozzles:

Cooling Tower Nozzles

Most cooling tower nozzles are made out of plastic. These plastics include glassfilled nylon, polypropylene, ABS, and PVC plastics. Nozzles allow for uniform distribution of the hot water that’s inside a cooling tower cell.

Distribution Valves:

Distribution Valves are a part of the cooling tower that regulates the flow of hot water to evenly distribute in cells. The valve body in a distribution valve is manufactured to stand up to corrosive environments.

Drive shafts:

Cooling Tower Driveshaft

Drive shafts transmit power the from the motor’s output shaft to the gear reduction unit’s input shaft.

Gear Box:

Gear boxes reduce the amount of speed depending on your cooling tower fan’s requirements. The torque tube permanently alights the gear reducer, driveshaft, and motor.

Cooling Tower Louvers:

Asbestos sheets are what cooling tower louvers are made out of. Louvers serve 2 purposes:  1. Retain the circulating water within a cooling tower. 2. Distribute air flow equally into the fill media.

Fan Cylinder & Fan Deck:


The fan deck is simply a supporting platform for the fan cylinders and also creates an access way to the water distributions system and fan.

Water Distribution Piping:

Water distribution piping requires burial underground or needs to be supported in ground to avoid thrust loading of the cooling tower due to water pressure in the pipe and self weight.

Cooling Tower Fans:

Cooling Tower Fans - Cooling Tower Components

Cooling tower fans are one the major parts/components of cooling towers. Most cooling tower fans are made out of hot-dipped galvanized steel, Glass Fiber, (FRP) Fiber Reinforced Plastic, and Aluminum. FRP is one of the best options because it is light weight and reduces the energy requirements (energy consumption) of the cooling tower fan. Pinch blade angles of cooling tower fan blades are varied depending on the season. For example, the pinch angle is increases during the summer season when the density is low to increase the capacity of the fan.

Cooling Tower Structure:

Cooling Tower Structure

The most common cooling tower structure is made up of Wood (Chemically Treated). Although, some newer cooling towers are being manufactured using FRP and Reinforced Cement Concrete (RCC) depending on the application the cooling tower is need for.

Cold Water Basin:

Cold water basins serve two functions and are normally manufactured using RCC. The first function of a cold water basin is to act as storage and collect cold water from the tower. The second function of a cold water basin is the provide the main structure and foundation for the cooling tower itself. Cold water basins usually lye below ground level or on top of the soil. Cooling tower height is found my measuring the distance between the fan assembly to the top of the water basin.


Drift Eliminators:


Eliminators reduce the amount of water that escapes into the discharge air in the cooling tower.  They project air in multiple directions and prevent unnecessary loss of water. These drift eliminators are manufactured using PVC. More passes through the drift eliminator will decrease the amount of drift loss while also increasing the pressure drop which increases the fan power consumption. For larger industrial applications, some use heavy duty drift eliminators.

Cooling Tower Fill Media:

Cooling tower fill media puts as much air in contact with as much water surface area as possible. The film fills make the water form in thing flowing sheets so that the most amount of water surface area interacts with the flow of air. Fill media is manufactured using either wood, polypropylene, or PVC. There are three different types of fill media including: Vertical fill (Splash Fill), Vertical offset fill (Splash Fill), and cross corrugated fill (Film Fill).

Thank you for reading our “Cooling Tower Components” list. Stay tuned for more from the experts at All Kote Lining Inc.

Written by webtechs

Cooling Tower Replacement Cost

If you’re searching for “cooling tower replacement cost” you’re facing a costly proposition.  The majority of cooling tower manufacturers say the average life span of a commercial cooling tower is about 15 to 20 years.

After 20 years the cooling towers need to be replaced or rebuilt.  That means commercial spaces built before the year 2000 have cooling towers that need to be replaced or rebuilt.  Commercial property owners can save thousands of dollars having cooling tower refurbishment instead of breaking the bank replacing them.  Read more about the cost of replacing cooling towers below.

Cooling Tower Replacement Cost

The cost of cooling tower replacement is about $50,000 per 200-ton cooling tower.  Large commercial spaces will use more than one of these 200-ton cooling towers so the cost of replacing the cooling tower system can easily reach $200,000 for the units, labor, and crane to lift them into place.

Replacement Cost Per Ton

Cooling towers are rated on how much air they can process in tons.  The replacement cost per ton depends on the brand of cooling tower, size, and any options for water treatment and epoxy coatings.  The larger the cooling tower the more they cost to buy, transport, and have craned onto a roof.  Property owners who already own cooling tower equipment can save an incredible amount of money by refurbishing cooling towers instead of replacing.

Cooling Tower Refurbishment Cost

All Kote Lining Inc. can restore your aging cooling towers and make them like new for a faction of the cost!  Depending on the size of the cooling tower system we can save commercial property owners literally tens of thousands of dollars over cooling tower replacement costs.

For the same type of 4-unit 200-ton cooling tower system refurbishment will cost around $80,000.  That is a $120,000-dollar saving!  And many times, the cost of cooling tower refurbishment isn’t classified as repairs instead of capital equipment.  This can mean some property owners will be able to get funding for the refurbishment.

Phoenix Valley Cooling Tower Refurbishment

If you own a commercial property and your cooling towers have reached the end of their lifespan All Kote Lining Inc. can save you thousands of dollars.  Our team offers complete cooling tower refurbishment that will save your company tens of thousands of dollars over buying and installing new cooling towers.  Cooling tower refurbishment adds about another 15 years of life to your equipment and helps you get your money’s worth out of your original investment in your cooling tower or property.

Written by webtechs

Benefits of Cooling Tower Repair

Should you choose to ignore your cooling tower’s operating condition for an extended amount of time it can prove to be detrimental, costing a lot more in the long run to have it fixed. If your cooling tower looks good, then chances are that it is no longer working well either and you need to have it checked out by a team of professional specialists and get it back to its optimal operating condition, whether it is in need of being repaired or restored.

Cooling Tower Repair Benefits

Here at All Kote, we are considered to be industry leaders and we remain as the forefront in our sector because we provide you with practical solutions to all issues related to cooling towers. Below we will be looking at several of the benefits of cooling tower repair and maintenance.


There can be significant health risks involved when a cooling tower is left to corrode and deteriorate. Cases have been known where a tower that was coated with epoxy or a powder coating caused the internal steel substrates to start corroding, which created a micro aquatic bacterial growth.

This is something that can cause Pseudomonas, Legionella, and Biofilm, which can create severe problems to the health of those in the vicinity of that tower.


Anytime we carry out repair work to your cooling tower, we always make certain that we leave its structure in its best possible condition, ensuring it remains durable, as well as resilient for future use. We leave your tower protected from an attack of bacteria and capable to handle high levels of chemical resistance and impacts because we apply our own unique coating system of urethane which is an anti-corrosion material.


If our team of professionals carry out the repairing of your cooling tower it will reduce the number of repairs, it is going to need in the future. Many towers face an ongoing problem that consists of the mastic in between the joints, and this is prone to getting chemical attacks, and losing its much-needed elasticity over a period of time. When this is left untreated it causes the structure to start leaking, and turning into a very disastrous situation for you to have to manage.”

Future Maintenance

We can prevent the leaking of chemicals and water coming from the mastic/joints by using our special repair techniques and coatings, ensuring that your tower has been left with an easy to clean finish for your convenience in keeping your tower at its optimal condition, having the benefit of less downtime. Our expert repairs to cooling towers has been proved to be beneficial countless times. We are a highly experienced company with the ability to continue ensuring the work, the efficiency, and the excellent condition of your cooling towers to have a long-term future, subsequently, also ensuring the peace of mind of all of our clients.

Phoenix Valley Cooling Tower Repair Service

If you’re looking for the best cooling tower repair and refurbishment, All Kote Lining Inc. is here to serve you.  Cooling towers are expensive investments in your commercial or industrial properties and should last as long as humanly possible.  Taking care of the cooling tower through regular maintenance and refurbishment is the key to getting the maximum amount of years from your equipment and saving money.  Our services save you money in making the equipment last longer and use less energy.  For more information about how our team can help repair and maintain your cooling towers in the Phoenix Valley please call 480-966-4446.

Written by webtechs

How To: Controlling Biofilm in Cooling Towers

Controlling biofilm in cooling towers is the priority of any property owner.  Biofilm robs your system of it’s efficiency and left unchecked can lead to the development of bacteria. Other than the specter of MIC eating on the metallic parts of your cooling system, aggregations of biofilms additionally repress heat transfer in the condenser tubes and can gather on cooling tower fill to the point where it can crumple the fill support and make serious damage to the cooling tower.

How To Control Biolfilm

The way to keep up control over microbiological populaces in power plant cooling water is to give a steady level of treatment consistently. That is, the treatment should be reliably powerful. The real convergences of biocide required to give this level of treatment may change essentially, contingent upon cooling water conditions and nature.

Some power plants find that they can stun treat the cooling water system for an hour daily amid the greater part of the year and slice back to a few times per week amid the winter while still appropriately controlling biofouling in their system. Other power plants do not just require every day or even consistent bolster of dye, yet additionally need to include extra nonoxidizing biocides amid the midyear months.

Oxidizing Biocide

The most widely recognized strategy for establishing that you are adding adequate oxidizing biocide to control microbiological fouling is the free chlorine test. This is a base and ought to be performed amid every chlorination cycle, or day by day for those that ceaselessly chlorinate. As conditions change the measure of blanch required to create the coveted free accessible chlorine leftover will change, and the plant ought to react by expanding or diminishing the biocide nourish rate likewise. Note that oxidation diminishment potential (ORP) isn’t a decent sign of microbiological control in cooling water. ORP is not a viable replacement for testing free accessible chlorine.

The Role of Chlorine

Getting the Full Benefit from Chlorine. A full exchange of the different sorts of biocides and advancing methodologies for their utilization is past the extent of this article. In any case, it is great to say a couple of words in regards to the most widely recognized biocide utilized as a part of energy plants: chlorine.

Already, the most widely recognized wellspring of chlorine was chlorine gas delivered to control plants as a dense fluid in 1-ton chambers. It was dissipated and cleared into the cooling water lines as a gas. At the point when chlorine gas broke down in water, it shaped hydrochloric corrosive and hypochlorous corrosive. The hydrochloric corrosive brought down the cooling water pH somewhat, which improved the impact of hypochlorous corrosive as a biocide. Evident worries about security were the essential reason that power plants moved far from the utilization of 1-ton chlorine barrels to sodium hypochlorite commercial bleach conveyance.

Commercial bleach can be commonly provided at 10% or 12.5% chlorine. 1 lb of chlorine gas will make 0.74 lb of hypochlorousacid, while 1 gallon of 12.5% bleach can possibly create 0.875 pounds of hypochlorous acid, if there is adequate hydrogen particle in the cooling water to shape the acid.

Commercial bleach is produced by gurgling chlorine gas into a scathing arrangement. Some additional scathing intentionally stays in the sanitizer to moderate the decay of hypochlorite to chlorates. The run of the mill pH of commercial bleach is near 11.5 and 13.5. Bleach arrangements that have a pH of 11 or less deteriorate quickly.

So the use of chlorine gas when compared to the use of bleach has the potential to increase the pH of cooling water. It has been stated that hypochlorous acid is more effective as a biocide than the hypochlorite ion. Thus, bleach loses its activity as a biocide in high pH cooling waters.

Sodium Hypochlorite Solutions

Sodium hypochlorite solutions will begin to decompose the minute they are created. They decompose along with 2 chemical pathways: by forming chlorate and by releasing oxygen. In quality hypochlorite solutions, the formation of chlorate is the main pathway. A variety of factors may accelerate the decomposition of bleach. The most critical are exposure to UV radiation, concentration, temperature, and time.

  • Bleach will decompose over time. It is calculated that 90F storage, a 10% bleach solution will lose half of the effective hypochlorite concentration in 95 days. You may use a tank of bleach in a few weeks, you may want to ask the supplier how long it has been in storage before arriving at your facility.
  • In just 60 days at 68F storage, bleach will lose 17% of the hypochlorite, where at 90F it will lose 55%. The temperature needs to be a consideration in placing a hypochlorite storage tank.
  • UV Radiation. UV rays from sunlight can decompose bleach solutions. Your bleach tanks need to be made from UV resistant materials or coated in a way that it will exclude UV light or place them inside.
  • The more concentrated the bleach solution is, the faster it will decompose. If your site is not a big bleach use, it may be best to stick with a 10% bleach solution instead of a higher concentration.

Other factors that will have an effect on the decomposition rate will include concentration of chlorides, and transition metals that may get into the bleach from caustic that was used in the manufacture or in the piping and tank materials where the bleach is stored. The nickel level in bleach needs to be less than 0.1 mg per 1 and copper needs to be less than 1 mg per 1.

Testing Bulk Chemicals

It is essential to test Bulk Chemicals. It becomes the chemistry personnel to check the hypochlorite concentration in every shipment of blanch before it is offloaded into their tank. One plant addressed why it was all of a sudden not accomplishing a free accessible chlorine remaining in its cooling water, as it had previously. A check of the detergent mass tank found that the fixation in the tank was just 2.5% dye. Clearly, the past dye conveyance was not the 10% dye the provider asserted it was. Basic hypochlorite test packs are accessible for this reason.

Avoid Bromine in Towers

Bromine Is Not a Biocide. At times I hear individuals alluding to their cooling water science as “bromine” science. Bromine is a rosy dark colored gas and exceptionally lethal (like its neighbor in the intermittent table—chlorine gas). Isn’t something that ought to ever be created at a power plant. The utilization of sodium bromide to improve the biocidal properties of blanch at higher cooling water pH esteems, in any case, is extremely normal.

It is vital to remember that sodium bromide isn’t a biocide. It is a simple salt that has no biocidal properties. It will only have them it has reacted with hypochlorous acid properly and not bleach that will form the hypobromous acid, which will be the desired biocide.

Stabilized hypobromous acid is also available at various chemical vendors. This helps to eliminate the need to mix sodium bromide and bleach on site. However,it will be more expensive to purchase the stabilized hypobromous acid than to make it.

Cooling Tower Maintenance & Repair

If you own or operate a facility in the Phoenix Valley that needs cooling tower maintenance or repair we can help!  All Kote Lining, Inc. specializes in cooling tower repair and refurbishment.   A big part of cooling tower maintenance is controlling and removing biofilm.  If you’ve got a cooling tower that needs some attention, give us a call. We also provide chiller repair & maintenance and tank coating services.

Call today to schedule an appointment – 480-966-4446

Written by webtechs

What Caused The Disneyland Legionnaries’ Disease Outbreak?

If you’re searching for “Disneyland Legionnaries’ Disease” you’re likely trying to understand what shut down Disneyland’s Cooling Towers in November of 2017.  Naturally everyone wanting to visit the park will want to understand what Legionnaries’ Disease is, and how it happened.  The source of the outbreak that affected 9 people finds its source in 2 of the park’s cooling towers.

What Is Legionnaries’ Disease?

Legionallosis is caused by Legionella bacteria which leads to a respiratory disease.  Legionnnaries’ Diease is a serious form of pneumonia which can be potentially life threatening.  The disease is not contagious, so it cannot be transmitted from person to person.  It develops in the natural environment typically around water and doesn’t typically make anyone sick.

In areas where there are manmade water systems such as cooling towers it can be carried via the moisture exhausted from cooling towers.  This exhaust is simply steam and the water droplets can be inhaled.  For this reason cooling tower maintenance and cooling tower water treatments are so important.  Allowing biological growth in the cooling tower can lead to Legionella and potentially make people sick.

Symptoms Of Legionnaries’ Disease

If you or someone you know has visited Disneyland lately you might be concerned that they have been exposed.  While many people can be exposed to the disease and have no reaction there are people who will.  Those with compromised immune systems, are elderly, or have chronic respiratory problems are especially at risk.  Watch for the following symptoms of Legionnaries’ Disease.

High Fever – Chills – Cough

Symptoms develop within between 2 to 10 days after being exposed to the bacteria, so watch carefully during this period of time.  Anyone over the age of 50 should immediately seek the attention of their doctor if they show signs of Legionarries’ Disease after a visit to the park.

Click the links below for more information:

[one-half-first]Center For Disease Control on Legionella

Disneyland’s Statement On Legionella[/one-half-first]
[one-half]Read Newsweek’s Report On The Incident

Live Science On Cooling Towers & Legionnaries’[/one-half]

Cooling Tower Cleaning & Maintenance

Do you have a commercial location that uses cooling tower?  They are part of the HVAC systems, industrial processes, and hospital operation in the Phoenix Valley and need to be kept clean to avoid bacterial infections.  Keeping your cooling tower in good condition is the job of cooling tower maintenance companies, and All Kote is Phoenix’ go to source for the best service.  If you’re not if your cooling tower is at risk give us a call to make sure your CDC and OSHA compliant for your cooling towers.

Reach our dedicated team of cooling tower maintenance technicians at 480-966-4446

Written by webtechs

Cooling Tower Fire Protection

Cooling towers are an integral part of operations for many commercial and industrial facilities.  If a cooling tower is lost, it will likely have a significant impact on the operation of the facility.  Cooling tower fire protection is an important part of managing a large commercial or industrial operation.

Cooling Towers & Materials

Many industrial processes are not possible without the cooling that cooling towers provide.  A cooling tower, as many of us know, is to transfer heat from one medium to another.  Much like a motor and a radiator in a vehicle an industrial process that produces heat will need to be cooled.  Depending on the application you will find all sorts of designs, sizes, and materials used in the fabrication of cooling towers.  The largest cooling towers are found in nuclear power plants and are monoliths.

Cooling Tower Fabrication

Cooling towers are made from a number of materials such as metal frames, metal parts, plastic fill, and wood.  The cooling tower itself or the fill media that is used to maximize air and water contact can be flammable. Depending on the materials it is possible for the dry areas in a cooling tower to be exceptionally flammable.  This might surprise people with the quantity of water cooling towers typically handle.

Mitigating Fire Hazards in Cooling Towers

Clearly there is a risk of fire in a cooling tower so taking proactive preventative steps is important.  It is a best practice if the cooling towers can be located a distance from combustible materials or structures.  Cooling towers should be designed with fire barriers to help prevent fire from spreading through the tower and into the buildings.

It is critical that there are firefighting appliances like standpipes and fire hydrants be installed close to the cooling tower.  Cooling towers also present a potential lightning risk with the metal used in their fabrication and parts.  For this reason cooling towers should be provided with lightning protection.  For more information refer to NFPA 214 Standard on Water-Cooling Towers.

FRP Cooling Tower Fire Protection

With the emergence and popularity operators and manufacturers of fiber-reinforced plastics cooling towers a segment of the industry has become convinced that these towers don’t need fire suppression. Manufactures believe the materials they fabricate the towers from are noncombustible and have no need of an automatic sprinkler system. Many of today’s FRP cooling tower manufacturers state their fill materials and towers have been evaluated to be within codes such as the ASTM E84, this is no guarantee that they are non-combustible. It’s important to realized that the ASTM E 84 does not classify materials heat release rate or combustibility.

FRP Cooling Tower Fire Testing

The only way to know for sure if a automatic sprinkler system is needed is the Factory Mural Research Approval for the tower.  This means that unless the materials and fill are made from masonry, concrete, metal, or tile or have otherwise been proven to be noncombustible they should be treated as combustible.  Following that logic all FRP cooling towers made from materials that are no definitively noncombustible will need automatic sprinkler protection to mitigate the risk of fire in the tower.

The Importance of Cooling Tower Fire Protection

Not assessing or ignoring potential fire hazards is an unnecessary risk in any building, whether it be commercial, industrial, or residential.   If you have substandard fire protection it is a lose-lose situation.  While installing and operating a cheaper cooling tower which doesn’t feature fire mitigation systems might save a few dollar in the short term, it will cost in the long term.

At best the higher insurance premiums will offset any savings from not installing the fire control systems.  And worst the lives of your personnel will be at risk, along with the property itself.  Replacing, rebuilding, and downtime are enormously costly for just about every industrial or commercial facility.  Invest in protecting your cooling tower from fire hazards and have the peace of mind that your cooling tower is not a liability.   For help with all your cooling tower maintenance needs in the Phoenix Valley contact All Kote Lining, Inc.

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